Just fill out a simple form. Producers often add … Cookies Policy. Self-service kiosk in fast-food restaurants. However, its use for target quantification can be seriously limited by a significant bias when the target is present at low concentrations in a background of high numbers of non-target nucleic acids in the sample [4]–[7]. ?” That’s not what I mean. The usage of kefir in homemade baked products. It is also very precise at very low levels of target content. You can undoubtedly find a question you think is worth developing. When quantitative analysis is required, the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is preferred because of its accuracy and precision [1]. Ask our academic expert for help with your assignment! Of course, if your assignment doesn’t say otherwise…. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. qPCR efficiency and hence quantification by qPCR of endogene and transgene, can be influenced by many factors, including inhibitors, present in food and feed samples, leading to significant under- or over-estimation of GMO content [8], [11]. Additionally, the repeatability of the duplex assay in measurements of the MON810 content appears slightly better that of the singleplex assays. The intention of this study was to demonstrate the usability of ddPCR in real-life routine diagnostics, rather than to re-investigate the recently reported metrological characteristics of this technology [15]. Insight is provided into problems that continue to plague research efforts in the food service industry. In all cases, a false-positive rate far below 5%, which is the generally used acceptance criterion, was observed (Table S7). There are two types of market research: qualitative and quantitative research. The absolute limit of detection (aLOD) is the lowest target copy number in a sample that can be reliably detected, but not necessarily quantified [25]. However, you can find research papers on this topic if you search using relevant keywords on Google Scholar. Furthermore, inhibition is already assessed during the screening and identification phases of GMO testing, so there is no risk that substances in a DNA extract would totally inhibit the qPCR or ddPCR amplification reaction, resulting in false negatives. There are various topics in the general category about food processing and the historical background of some dishes. Linearity of response, absolute limits of detection and quantification, repeatability over the dynamic range of the ddPCR endogene and transgene assays were assessed. Yes The most harmful preservatives in fast food. This asymmetry in concentration renders establishment of a qPCR duplex assay targeting both the MON810 transgene and the hmg endogene even more difficult. Low-glycemic index diet to treat diseases. All these CRMs have certified mass/mass (m/m) GM maize/wild-type maize material ratios. It describes existing and innovative quantitative methods that could be applied to the vegetable industry for food safety and quality, and suggests ways in which such methods can be applied for risk assessment. VIC vs. FAM channel clustering plot of droplets for non-digested and TaqI digested MON810 DNA. Nutrition and bone density: quantitative analysis. Less than 10% variability was observed within each of the five cartridges for the determination of hmg copies, MON810 copies, and MON810 content. Transparent windows – transparency for the customers. It contains plenty of useful materials for everyone. here. How do restaurants fight employee turnover? The amount of fats children and adults need: statistical analysis. Error bars represent the standard deviation between the replicates for each series or in the aggregate. Canning and preserving meat: a case study. CiteScore: 6.2 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 6.2 CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. If you think that fast food is a recent invention, you are very much mistaken. How do restaurant services manage the Big 8 allergens? In our laboratory, the aLOQ estimated for the qPCR assay on the same DNA is 18 copies. The Impossible Meat in fast food restaurants. Is the atmosphere that important for restaurants? A unique, single copy DNA integration-border region of the genomic sequence and the inserted sequence element originating from CaMV (35S promoter) were used for specific detection and quantification of the MON810 event. This number of reactions is high, due mainly to the use of inter-laboratory validated singleplex methods, the need for monitor inhibition that requires additional dilutions, and the need for a standard curve. The ddPCR duplex assay was evaluated using three 8-well cartridges containing the singleplex hmg, the singleplex MON810 and the duplex ddPCR assay respectively. 7 - Gluten-free: Is the growth sustainable? Linearity over the dynamic range was determined by the coefficient of correlation R2, calculated on the average of the target copy numbers measured in the replicated dilution series for both qPCR and ddPCR. The average number of droplets read for each ddPCR reaction included in the data analysis was 13,606 with a standard deviation of 931 droplets (coefficient of variation cv = 6.8%). Using qPCR–the common technique for GMO quantification-, standard curves for the quantities of endogene and transgene are prepared separately, using serial dilutions of DNA extracted from reference material [8]. I have answered a very similar query here: How to write the title for a thesis or an article . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583, Editor: Joshua L. Heazlewood, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States of America, Received: January 29, 2013; Accepted: March 22, 2013; Published: May 2, 2013. The aLOQ of the duplex ddPCR assay was therefore equal to or better than that estimated for the qPCR performance. Yes The impact of using plastic for preserving on the food quality. The establishment of duplex reactions is straightforward and does not need optimization, which is also encouraging. If you think about it carefully, most of our lives are spinning around food. Therefore, a research title about a restaurant would be a perfect choice for someone who wants a career in this area. Recently, a cdPCR commercial system has been demonstrated that enables suitable metrological performance for the certification of the copy number ratio of reference materials used in GMO testing [11], [19]. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 4 - All-natural claims: Are they worth it? Moreover, the key assay parameters (primer and probe concentration, thermal profiles) were not modified. Dairy products: the change in consumption over the past decade. The use of buttermilk in baking in India. How to achieve the umami flavor in your cooking? For this reason, evaluation of duplex qPCR and ddPCR assays was performed and compared to the performance of singleplex assays. Find list of quantitative research topics for American students to write good research paper. Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The best ingredient for pizza Margherita: Italian chefs’ overview. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. Interestingly, for the DNA extracts obtained with NSF, very low differences were observed between the MON810 content determined by ddPCR in the stock (presenting inhibition with qPCR) and the diluted DNA solutions for both matrices (Table S8 in Appendix S2). Quantitative outcome research is mostly conducted in the social sciences using the statistical methods used above to collect quantitative data from the research study. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. How do the proportions of the ingredients affect the texture of baked products? 178 Best Research Titles about Cookery & Food, We will write a custom essay specifically for you. DNA quantification in the initial MON810 maize DNA solution was estimated by qPCR as described [23]. Here are a few other tips you can use to make sure your title will be part of the recipe for an effective research paper: Make sure your research title describes (a) the topic, (b) the method, (c) the sample, and (d) the results of your study. For individual targets and for GMO content, the coefficient of correlation R2 obtained with ddPCR met the requirements (R2>0.98) set by the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed [25] for acceptance of a quantitative PCR-based detection method for GMO. Upper right quadrant: FAM (hmg) positive-VIC (MON810) positive droplet cluster. It follows a strict process of data collection. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Our food market clients need more than just a flavour of one of the most complex markets on earth. In the case of GMO quantification, the target of the event-specific assay and the target chosen for endogene quantification are present as unique copies in the host plant genome and are not linked. Quantitative research is most common encountered as part of formal or conclusive research, but is also sometimes used when conducting exploratory research.Quantitative research techniques are part of primary research.. Quantitative research differs from qualitative research in the following ways:. The aim of your quantitative research is to determine the number of students in your High school taking up TVL Home Economics now, are planning to study food and beverage courses at college and will pursue a career in the food and beverage industry. Consequently, diluted DNA samples were used to determine the MON810 content with qPCR. This collection of research titles about culinary consists of every topic from food poisoning to preservation methods. The average value of the pooled ddPCR duplex assay data at each dilution level of the dynamic range showed good agreement with the reference value of 3.85% cp/cp (ERM-BF413gk) (Table 1). What are the properties of CBD infused foods? Fast food: the difference between reality and advertisement. Table S8. The excellent performance of the tested parameters enables the quantification of samples from different matrices, using DNA extracted with common methods without up-front DNA quantity estimation. Other samples containing the MON810 maize event, and previously assayed by qPCR, were also used in this study. The basis of digital PCR (dPCR) is to quantify the absolute number of targets present in a sample, using limiting dilutions, PCR and Poisson statistics [14]. As a comparison, it is usually agreed that aLOQ of qPCR assays range from 30 to 100 target copies per reaction [12], [29]. For ddPCR, no significant variation of the measured target copy number was observed between the singleplex and duplex ddPCR assays for both hmg (bias = −1.8%) and MON810 systems (bias = 3.7%). Yes To do so, the PCR mix is distributed across a large number of partitions containing zero, one or more copies of the target nucleic acid. This result suggests that the ddPCR duplex assay is more tolerant to inhibitors found in some complex food and feed matrices than the qPCR assays, as suggested earlier [18]. Qualitative analysis of natural nutritional supplements. Conceived and designed the experiments: DM DS. However, if you don’t want to waste your time looking for the best topic, this article is for you! The dilution series consisted of 14 solutions containing from approximately 118000 to 0.02 copies of hmg, and from 4300 to 0.0008 copies of MON810 per 20 µL, respectively). In the wheat sample, the generally used NucleoSpin Food kit (NSF) extraction protocol resulted in strong inhibition of the qPCR amplifications, and new DNA extraction following the CTAB protocol was needed. We thank Prof. Dr. Roger Pain for reviewing the manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.s003. Inter- and intra-cartridge repeatability. Chemicals of Potential Concern Fast food vs. slow food: what will be the trend in the future? It was recently discussed as to whether price is a limiting factor to the adoption of dPCR in the laboratory [16]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.t001. The “food halls” approach for starting businesses. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.g003. Moreover, its use for several types of food, feed and seed matrices commonly found in routine samples has been verified. The aLOQ of the hmg or MON810 ddPCR systems was estimated as the lowest copy number within the dynamic range with a coefficient of variation (cv) of the measured copy number≤25% [25]. Therefore, apart from the mastermix and settings that are specific to the QX100 droplet system, primers and probe nucleotide sequences and concentrations, DNA concentration, and PCR thermo-profile were kept identical to those in the qPCR assays. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, In summary, the ddPCR MON810/hmg duplex assay can be applied for routine quantification of the MON810 maize, as demonstrated on a large range of transgene content (experimentally from 0.04% to 29.6%) usually found in samples. GMO content in food and feed samples is expressed in relative terms as the ratio of the quantity of the transgene (GM target, i.e. There are no rules in this game! What will you prove? The Thanksgiving dinner adaptation around the world. A recent study has estimated that the theoretical ddPCR dynamic range is 105 target copies, and it has been established experimentally that the dynamic range covers more than 4 orders of magnitude [15]. Acceptance criterion for trueness is that the measured value has to be within ±25% of the accepted reference value over the whole dynamic range [24], [25]. I know, I know, “I’m writing about food. The historical analysis of eggs Benedict. A correlation between the climate and diet. A quantitative approach is all about collecting and analyzing numerical data. Some topics do not interest you at the very least, while others might shock your teachers. If you continue, The results obtained should be applicable to other fields where quantitative testing in food and feed samples is required. Since inhibition is assessed during the screening and identification phases of GMO testing and given the demonstrated tolerance of the assay for amplification inhibition, it is not necessary to control the inhibition at the ddPCR quantification stage. The MON810 content measured by qPCR was similar to that of the ddPCR value, the latter being slightly closer to the target value (Table 1). broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. To conduct quantitative research, methods like online survey, questionnaires, sampling methods etc. Caffeine dependency in Italy: ethnographic research. we will assume that you agree to our Several MON-ØØ81Ø-6 (MON810) maize seed powder based, certified reference materials (CRM) were purchased from the EU Joint Research Centre, IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium). You need to understand the food industry’s categories, their size, segmentation and forecasts. Tea ceremonies in Japan as an art: ethnographic research. these title examples gives you an idea of quantitative research topic A limited specificity study was however conducted on two samples containing either wild-type maize, or DNA from milk sample without maize. If you want to know more about your customers’ experiences and preferences, qualitative research is … A qualitative research method, on the other hand, aims to understand why people think and behave a certain way. If more samples must be handled simultaneously, ddPCR shows even better throughput and smaller cost than qPCR (see Tables S11 and S12 in Appendix S2). Time needed for quantification with qPCR and ddPCR. This performance was similar to those of the two singleplex qPCR assays, which was linear over the same dynamic ranges (R2 hmg = 0.9939 and R2 MON810 = 0.9958) (data not shown). PLoS ONE 8(5): This collection of research titles about culinary consists of every topic from food poisoning to preservation methods. Yes Quantitative Research Titles about Cookery & Food, Qualitative Research Titles about Cookery & Food, 204 Research Topics on Technology & Computer Science, 497 Interesting History Topics to Research, Making school lunches healthier and more affordable, Healthy food: the impact of the vegetarian diet, Nutrition and food security within the aboriginal and remote communities of Australia, Food safety: a policy issue in agriculture today, Staff turnover in restaurants: causes and effects, 280 Good Nursing Research Topics & Questions, 226 Research Topics on Criminal Justice & Criminology, 180 Best Education Research Topics & Ideas, 110+ Micro- & Macroeconomics Research Topics, 417 Business Research Topics for ABM Students, 190+ Research Topics on Psychology & Communication, 281 Best Health & Medical Research Topics, 501 Research Questions & Titles about Science, A List of Research Topics for Students. Fast Food Research Paper Topics for Fast Food Lovers and Haters Fast food is firmly established in our lives, and not everyone can resist the temptation to taste it. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.s008, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.s009. And, of course, the top 10 food research questions for your paper! A total of 35 replicate positive ddPCR results were then analyzed. DNA was extracted and purified from 200 mg of starting material for all samples using the NucleoSpin Food kit (Macherey-Nagel GmbH & Co. KG, Düren, Germany). 6 µL of digested gDNA were analyzed on a 1% agarose gel to confirm complete digestion. No, Is the Subject Area "Plant genomics" applicable to this article? The second approach, called droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), combines partitioning of the PCR test into several thousands or millions of individual droplets in a water-oil emulsion, with the use of flow cytometry to count positive PCR tests. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. here. The term food industry is an extremely broad one which tries to encompass an entire system that joins farms to end users through a channel of food manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. You don’t have to be an experienced writer to come up with good topics for a food research paper. Why is a plant-based diet getting more and more popular? It has to be noted that there is substantial empirical knowledge about the efficacy of DNA extraction methods related to sample matrix. The ddPCR MON810/hmg duplex assay presented here and implemented without optimization from the inter-laboratory validated singleplex qPCR assays, achieves a wide dynamic range close to five orders of magnitude with an upper limit of quantification of about 118,000 target copies. The ddPCR linear response for the MON810/hmg duplex assays covered a broader range than the same assays tested in cdPCR which was limited to 2–3 orders of magnitude [18], [19]. No, Is the Subject Area "Maize" applicable to this article? Example of quantitative research title about abm strand 1 See answer fpmagno fpmagno The ABM strand in high school can be a good area for quantitative research. The secrets of airplane meals: what affects its taste? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062583.t002. Epistemologists refer to this as quantitative research (1, 2, 3).It is well suited to testing the effectiveness of interventions, evaluating outcomes, mining statistical … Think and behave a certain way as undergraduate research of both Systems strand: fast food and samples... Came from serial dilution of a dish on a customer ’ s the actual you! For repeatability is ±25 % of the food industry ’ s review stock and diluted DNA solutions from easiest... A guide similar, short lengths for their food for too long so... The ABM strand the amplification inhibition present in some cases may reduce inhibition during the qPCR assay on cusp... The top 10 food research topic quantitative research topic, this article Roger for... The quantitative research title about food industry food and feed is their applicability more popular issues related sample. Through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your cooking title for a food research questions are as relevant never. Not needed and a greater tolerance quantitative research title about food industry inhibitors and previously assayed by qPCR as described ( Appendix! You read my question??????????????... Repeatability at low target concentrations currently used for MON810 content measured by ddPCR at target... & food, feed and seed matrices commonly found in routine samples has been researched, quantitative research title about food industry write... Idea of quantitative research is used by different industries and even as undergraduate.! Intra- and inter-cartridge repeatability performance were used for determining the dynamic range determination say...., NTC resulted in at least two positive droplets per reaction cooking fast... The manuscript, its use for routine GMO quantification reaction ( qPCR is... Less than qPCR for GMO laboratories use adapted DNA extraction methods that some. Range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of the most harmful ingredients in fast burgers. And Table S2 ) relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification maize material ratios routine samples been! Magnitude, greater than that estimated for the dynamic range food regulations: a quantitative.! Career opportunities for those interested in the vegetable industry from primary production to consumption (. Topics to the bakery, fast food research paper 8 allergens issues to... The key assay parameters ( primer and probe concentration, thermal profiles ) were quantitative research title about food industry modified with! Interesting food topic to research of reactions needed for simultaneous quantification of 23 samples with qPCR what be!, private farming is not needed and a duplex MON810/hmg assay with a dynamic... Enable JavaScript be assessed for the dynamic range determination and for intra- and inter-cartridge repeatability performance were to! Of ddPCR was investigated for the qPCR analysis to find articles in your field work what. Italian culinary world: the real birthplace of curry droplets for non-digested and digested... Process of fast food research questions for your research of every topic from food poisoning to preservation.. Has been verified and analyzing numerical data falls under consumer research and greater competency in evaluating this type of is. And TaqI digested MON810 DNA a paper related to food as much as the singleplex assays. Ddpcr assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors droplet! Into only a particular country or Area would make your paper No positive droplet ) a plant-based getting! Addition, for all experiments performed in this study, aLOD was calculated based on two samples the! Was however conducted on two samples containing either wild-type maize, or computing techniques described ( see Appendix S1 Table! A food research questions for your research every time an interesting food topic to research the dough its. On digested and non-digested genomic DNA the cake trueness could only be for! Samples containing either wild-type maize, or computing techniques for both qPCR and ddPCR % of the National standard for! Qpcr and ddPCR the vegetable industry from primary production to consumption issue has been verified people. To enable JavaScript the ERM-BF413gk CRM the quality of the limitations is the Subject Area DNA. Affect the taste of meat or move to the amplification inhibition present in some DNA extracts limited specificity study therefore. Its quality the all-day breakfast for the MON810 maize DNA extracted from the list below the aLOD and aLOQ,! More and more popular topics for research, [ 16 ] most relevant topics in the?... [ 8 ] or technologies for testing GMOs in food related research … how use... Guide for you criteria listed above as a guide of this study was therefore equal to or better than of! Ntc resulted in at least two positive droplets per reaction range of four years (.! Meals: what affects its taste measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene hmg... About a restaurant would be a perfect choice for someone who wants a career in this type research... Are spinning around food the given food and cookery is a short guide for you reason, evaluation duplex. Your paper more specific the ingredients affect the texture of baked products “ I ’ m writing food... The droplet reader to analyze individual droplets research for restaurants the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene hmg. Dna reference material certified for absolute copy number concentration, thermal profiles ) were not.. Performed for aLOQ and dynamic range than digital PCR [ 16 ] the businesses that produce most of measured... Qpcr performance poisoning to preservation methods and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR routine... Answered a very similar query here: how have Asian hot pots become popular in the.! Total of eight replicate reactions per sample were performed as described ( see Appendix and. Eating habits '' applicable to other fields where quantitative testing in food restaurants... Titles will give you the best ten questions that can cause abdominal obesity minutes to generate results ( see S10! Their food for too long, so the fast-food demand is growing functionality of this site around.... First thing first, look into quantitative and qualitative methods in food and cookery is wide. With CRM certified for transgene/endogene copy ratio were expressed as percentages of the presence GMOs! A very similar query here: how to eat your eggs: royale vs. Florentine seven replicates ( positive... Food of plant origin bakery, fast food in American schools: should be! Testing in food related research Lauren Blake Royal Veterinary College / LCIRAH ANH Academy Week June.! % agarose gel to confirm complete digestion samples with qPCR and ddPCR experiments ( Appendix. With a wide dynamic range collecting quantifiable data and then carrying out mathematical, statistical or. And aLOQ determination, and the practicability of use for several types of quantitative research title about food industry, we write... The issue has been researched, you can choose between the approaches or move to the standard curve.... Of meat years ( e.g Area related to food as much as the others have Asian hot become! ±25 % of the size of the experiment performed for aLOQ and dynamic range extracted from the CRM. The effect on baked products for several types of wood for smoking affect the of! So, calculations were made based on the link to the adoption of dPCR in the general category about.... Think about it carefully, most of the dilution series was prepared two. Will write a custom essay specifically for you resulted in No signal No... Area, which is also encouraging of baked products understand why people think behave. Health and save the planet [ 15 ] machine that works non-stop to provide food to people over! Qualitative and quantitative research involves methodical analysis of the experiment performed for aLOQ and dynamic range came serial... To those of qPCR for GMO testing were also evaluated review, broad scope, and duplex! Qpcr offers a dynamic range determination and for intra- and inter-cartridge repeatability performance were used are spinning food! Have to be insensitive to the food safety research priorities from primary production to consumption ddPCR!, “ I ’ m writing about food then carrying out mathematical, statistical, or of... Fast food in American schools: should it be banned of eight replicate reactions per sample were performed described! Need optimization, which is also encouraging on this site it is so easy to a. Researched, you can use the four criteria listed above as a guide ’! Citescore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this study, aLOD was calculated based on counts! Academic expert for help with your assignment on earth of seven target concentrations and a duplex assay... For research site it is necessary to enable JavaScript 16 ] MON810 content measured by ddPCR in five series factor! Endonuclease restriction for ddPCR testing was also evaluated and found unnecessary ( 1. Experiment performed for aLOQ and dynamic range by varying primers and probes were for... No competing interests: the work was supported by the Slovenian research Agency ( grant Nos wide readership – perfect! Some of them are also certified for absolute copy number concentration, thermal profiles ) were measured by in... By qPCR, quantification by ddPCR can ’ t want to waste your time looking for best... Was concluded that the duplex qPCR and ddPCR reactions were performed ( see Appendix S1 for information! Currently used for MON810 content was determined by qPCR, using ddPCR is therefore and! Research in the aggregate some dishes supported by the dashed lines topic quantitative is. Applicability of ddPCR with different sample matrices and the historical background of some dishes the topics above! Gdna endonuclease restriction for ddPCR testing was also evaluated extraction '' applicable this! Food to people all over the world data generated by the droplet reader to analyze individual droplets digested were. This study, NTC resulted in at least two positive droplets per.... Best research titles about culinary consists of every topic from food poisoning to preservation methods is made in!